Communicable Disease Control Immunization Program
2009 Study - Relative Risks of Diseases and Immunization
February 17, 2015

Source: BC Centre for Disease Control (Canada) Page 8 (Table 1.0) from the Section I - Immunization Manual 2002

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Vaccines can and do cause damage to the human body. Below is real information from the BC Centre for Disease Control on actual finding comparing the risk of disease to the adverse events associated with the vaccinations.

Disease Risk Associated with Disease Adverse Events Associated with Vaccine
Diphtheria Case fatality: 5–10%

Complications are caused by the toxin released by the diphtheria bacteria and include upper airway obstruction, pneumonia, heart failure, and paralysis.

Local reactions (redness, swelling and pain) increasing with age, the quantity of toxoid, and the number of doses received: 16% in children and 10% in adults

Fever and irritability occur less commonly

Tetanus Case fatality: 10%

Generalized rigidity and convulsive spasms of skeletal muscles.

Severe spasms can cause fractures in the spine and long bones. Spasms in the larynx cause eating and breathing difficulties.

Local reactions (same as above)

Lymphadenopathy and fever may occasionally occur

Serum sickness, brachial plexus neuropathy, encephalomyelitis, and transverse myelitis rarely reported

Risk of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) following immunization with a tetanus – containing vaccine is 0.4 per million doses of vaccine.

Pertussis 1-3 deaths each year in Canada, primarily in young infants.

Complications include; Apnea, Pneumonia: 5.2%, Seizures: 0.8%, Encephalopathy: 0.1%

Mild fever in 3-5% of vaccine recipients

Local reactions (redness, swelling, and pain) increase with the number of doses received

Moderate to severe systemic events are reported rarely with acellular vaccines

Haemophilus influenzae type b Meningitis: 55-65%

Meningitis case fatality rate: 5% (10-15% of Hib meningitis survivors have permanent neurologic sequelae and 15-20% have deafness.)

Epiglottitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, and cellulitis

Local reaction (pain, redness, and swelling): 5-30%. Symptoms are mild and resolve within 24 hours.
Polio Aseptic meningitis: 1% of polio infections

Paralytic polio: 1% (25% of these will have post poliomyelitis syndrome)

Death: 5-10% in paralytic polio infections ( 2-5% in children and 15-30% in adults)

Local discomfort: 5%

No severe adverse events reported with IPV

Measles Febrile convulsions: 2%

Pneumonia, otitis media: 10%

Thrombocytopenia:1/300 cases

Encephalitis: 0.1% (1/1000 cases) (case fatality: 15%; neurologic sequelae: 25%)

Death: 0.05-0.3% (1/3000 cases)

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: 1/25,000 cases

MMR vaccine:

Malaise and fever, with or without a non-infectious rash: 5%

Parotitis: up to 1%

Swollen glands, stiff neck or joint pains: 5%

Transient arthralgia or arthritis more common in post-pubertal females (25% of post-pubertal females may experience arthralgia, and 10% may have arthritis-like signs and symptoms)

Encephalitis:1 case per million doses

Transient thrombocytopenia: 1 in 30,000 doses

Mumps Parotitis: 30-40%

Orchitis: 20-30% in post pubertal males

Oophoritis: 5% in post pubertal females

Deafness: 0.5-5.0 per 100,000 cases

Encephalitis: 0.5%

See MMR vaccine above.
Rubella Acute arthralgia or arthritis: 50% of adolescents and adults

Encephalitis: 1/6,000 cases

Risk of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) is 85% in maternal infections in the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. CRS may include miscarriage, stillbirth, and fetal malformations such as congenital heart disease, cataracts, deafness, and mental retardation.

See MMR vaccine above.
Hepatitis B Death: 1-2% due to fulminant hepatitis

Risk of chronicity depends on age at time of infection: infants: 90-95%; children 1-5years: 30-50%; adults: 5%

Chronic carriers have an increased risk of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (cause of up to 80% of hepatocellular carcinomas)

Local reactions (tenderness, redness, swelling): 13-29% of adults and 3-9% of children

Fever (up to 37.7°C): 1% of adults and 0.4-6.4% of children

Mild systemic symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and irritability: 11-17% of adults and 0-20% of children

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) HPV types 16 and 18 cause 70% of cervical cancer

HPV types 6 and 11 cause 90% of genital warts

HPV causes 36% of oropharyngeal cancer; 24% of oral cancer, and 24% of laryngeal cancer

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis caused by HPV types 6 and 11 may be acquired from mother at birth or occur in adulthood

Injection site reactions; Pain 83.9%, Swelling 25.4%, Redness 24.6%, Itching 3.1%.

Systemic reactions; Fever 10.3%, Nausea 4.2%, Dizziness 2.8%, Diarrhea 1.2%
Influenza Viral and bacterial pneumonia

Death reported in 0.5-1 per 1000 cases; most deaths in persons ≥ 65 years of age

During epidemics, there may be increased mortality and morbidity among the elderly, the immunocompromised and those with chronic disease

Local reactions (soreness at injection site): ≤ 7% of children <3 years of age

Fever: ≤ 12% of children 1-5 years of age

Headache, malaise, myalgia: <1%

Risk of GBS estimated to be 1 excess case per million doses of influenza vaccine

Meningococcal Disease Meningitis is the most common presentation of invasive disease.

Meningitis case fatality: 5-10%.

Septicemia: 5-20% of cases

Pneumonia: 5-15% of cases

Arthritis: 2% of cases

Otitis media and epiglottitis: <1% of cases

Sequelae occur in up to 20% of survivors and include hearing loss, neurologic damage, loss of limbs from gangrene, and kidney damage.

Conjugate vaccines:

Local reactions(redness, tenderness, and swelling at injection site): up to 50%

Irritability: up to 80% of infants

Fever >39°C: up to 9% (when given at same time as other vaccines)

Headache and malaise: up to 10% of older children and adults

Severe reactions: < 0.01%

Risk of GBS associated with quadrivalent conjugate meningococcal vaccine continues to be monitored

Polysaccharide vaccines:

Local reactions (pain and redness): up to 50%
Fever: 5%, particularly in infants

Pneumococcal Disease Pneumococcal pneumonia is an important cause of death in infants and the elderly.

Case fatality rate is 5-7% overall (much higher among the elderly)

Most common cause of bacterial meningitis. Case fatality rate is 30% (up to 80% among the elderly)

Bacteremia: case fatality rate is 20% (up to 60% among the elderly)

Otitis media

Conjugate vaccine:

Local reactions (pain, swelling, or redness at injection site): 10-20%; Fever: 15-24% (when vaccine administered at the same time as whole cell pertussis vaccine)

Polysaccharide vaccine:

Local reactions: 30-50%

Fever: 2%

Irritability, drowsiness, restless sleep, decreased appetite, headache, malaise may occur with conjugate or polysaccharide vaccine

Varicella Secondary bacterial infections: 5-10%

Low platelets: 1-2%

Cerebellar ataxia: 1/4000 cases

Encephalitis:1/5000 cases

Invasive group A Streptococcal infection: 5/100,000 cases

Death (per 100, 000 cases):

Adults: 30 deaths

Infants < 1year old: 7 deaths

Children 1-19 years old: 1-1.5 deaths

Otitis media, bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, necrotizing fasciitis, toxic shock-like syndrome

Reactivation of varicella virus as Herpes Zoster (shingles) later in life: 20%

Congenital varicella syndrome: up to 2% of fetuses born to mothers infected at 13-20 weeks gestation

Varicella like rash at injection site: 3-5% after the first dose and 1% after a second dose

Small number of generalized varicella-like papules or vesicles: 5% after the first dose and 1% after a second dose

Fever: 10-15%

Local reaction (pain, swelling, and redness at injection site): 10-20%

Risk of zoster after vaccination: 2.6/100,000 vaccine doses

No deaths or congenital varicella have been attributed to vaccine.